In vivo large-area confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the human eye using EyeGuidance technology allows a large-scale morphometric assessment of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP). Here, the SNP of a patient suffering from diabetes and associated late complications was analyzed. The SNP contained multiple clusters of large hyperintense, stellate-shaped, cellular-like structures. Comparable structures were not observed in control corneas from healthy volunteers. Two hypotheses regarding the origin of these atypical structures are proposed. First, these structures might be keratocyte-derived myofibroblasts that entered the epithelium from the underlying stroma through breaks in Bowman’s layer. Second, these structures could be proliferating Schwann cells that entered the epithelium in association with subbasal nerves. The nature and pathophysiological significance of these atypical cellular structures, and whether they are a direct consequence of the patient’s diabetic neuropathy/or a non-specific secondary effect of associated inflammatory processes, are unknown.