# Radar-based assessment of hail frequency in Europe

Fluck, Elody; Kunz, Michael; Geissbuehler, Peter; Ritz, Stefan P.

##### Abstract:
In this study we present a unique 10 year climatology of severe convective storm tracks for a large European area covering Germany, France, Belgium and Luxembourg. For the period 2005–2014, a high-resolution hail potential composite of 1×1 km$^{2}$ is produced from two-dimensional radar reflectivity and lightning data. Individual hailstorm tracks as well as their physical properties, such as radar reflectivity along the tracks, were reconstructed for the entire time period using the Convective Cell Tracking Algorithm (CCTA2D).

A sea-to-continent gradient in the number of hail days per year is found to be present over the whole domain. In addition, the highest number of severe storms is found on the leeward side of low mountain ranges such as the Massif Central in France and the Swabian Jura in southwest Germany. A latitude shift in the hail peak month is observed between the northern part of Germany, where hail occurs most frequently in August, and southern France, where the maximum amount of hail is 2 months earlier. The longest footprints with high reflectivity values occurred on 9 June 2014 and on 28 July 2013 with lengths reaching up to 500 km. ... mehr

 Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK)KIT-Zentrum Klima und Umwelt (ZKU) Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz Publikationsjahr 2021 Sprache Englisch Identifikator ISSN: 1561-8633, 1684-9981 KITopen-ID: 1000130313 Erschienen in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Verlag European Geosciences Union (EGU) Band 21 Heft 2 Seiten 683-701 Nachgewiesen in Scopus
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