Aqueous rechargeable batteries are becoming increasingly important to the development of renewable energy sources, because they promise to meet cost‐efficiency, energy and power demands for stationary applications. Over the past decade, efforts have been devoted to the improvement of electrode materials and their use in combination with highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes. Here the latest ground‐breaking advances in using such electrolytes to construct aqueous battery systems efficiently storing electrical energy, i.e., offering improved energy density, cyclability and safety, are highlighted. This Review aims to timely provide a summary of the strategies proposed so far to overcome the still existing hurdles limiting the present aqueous batteries technologies employing concentrated electrolytes. Emphasis is placed on aqueous batteries for lithium and post‐lithium chemistries, with potentially improved energy density, resulting from the unique advantages of concentrated electrolytes.