The calendering step during manufacturing of lithium‐ion batteries is an essential process in the production, as it significantly influences the microstructure of electrodes and, therefore, the performance of the battery. Within this context, this article investigates the influence of particle shapes on the micromechanical responses during calendering and, in turn, their impact on the effective transport properties of battery electrodes. The electrodes are modeled using discrete elements. For this reason, a novel algorithm for the generation of random stress‐free particle assemblies consisting of superellipsoids is presented. The effective conductivities of solid and pore phase are calculated with a resistor network approach. In this context, a new analytical formula for calculating the individual resistance between two mechanically deformed ellipsoidal particles is presented. Furthermore, a geometrical approach is chosen for the pore phase for calculating individual resistances of pore throats in superellipsoidal particle assemblies. With the theoretical fundamentals, the effective conductivities of solid and pore phases of uniaxially compressed ellipsoidal particle assemblies are investigated. ... mehrThe mechanical response and its influence on the evolution of the effective conductivities are discussed. The deeper insight into the interplay between the calendering process and electrode microstructure can be a helpful information regarding a specific electrode design.