Scheduling of megaprojects is very challenging because of typical characteristics, such as expected long project durations, many activities with multiple modes, scarce resources, and investment decisions. Furthermore, each megaproject has additional specific characteristics to be considered. Since the number of nuclear dismantling projects is expected to increase considerably worldwide in the coming decades, we use this type of megaproject as an application case in this paper. Therefore, we consider the specific characteristics of constrained renewable and non-renewable resources, multiple modes, precedence relations with and without no-wait condition, and a cost minimisation objective. To reliably plan at minimum costs considering all relevant characteristics, scheduling methods can be applied. But the extensive literature review conducted did not reveal a scheduling method considering the special characteristics of nuclear dismantling projects. Consequently, we introduce a novel scheduling problem referred to as the nuclear dismantling project scheduling problem. Furthermore, we developed and implemented an effective metaheuristic to obtain feasible schedules for projects with about 300 activities. ... mehrWe tested our approach with real-life data of three different nuclear dismantling projects in Germany. On average, it took less than a second to find an initial feasible solution for our samples. This solution could be further improved using metaheuristic procedures and exact optimisation techniques such as mixed-integer programming and constraint programming. The computational study shows that utilising exact optimisation techniques is beneficial compared to standard metaheuristics. The main result is the development of an initial solution finding procedure and an adaptive large neighbourhood search with iterative destroy and recreate operations that is competitive with state-of-the-art methods of related problems. The described problem and findings can be transferred to other megaprojects.