With the expected changes in summer weather due to global warming, knowledge of the microclimatic variability at the forest floor dramatically increased in importance for silviculture, wildfire management and biodiversity issues. Thus, during the warm season in 2014, thermal aspects within a heterogeneous forest were recorded at nine sites and compared to data from a nearby weather station. It was found that soil (−5 cm) and near-surface (0–2 cm) temperatures under shaded conditions stayed remarkably cooler than temporarily or fully radiated spots inside and outside the forest; largest differences occurred in maxima (July: 22.5 °C to 53.5 °C). Solar radiation was found to be the main driver for the strong heating of near-surface microhabitats, which could be reinforced by the vegetation type (moss). The weather station widely reflected the average condition on forest floor, but lacks the biological meaningful temperature extremes. The measurement system (internal versus external sensor) resulted in differences of up to 6 K. The findings underline the importance of old or dense stands for maintaining cool microrefugia. However, also the need for careful selection and analysis of microclimatic measurements in forests, representative for specific microhabitats, under consideration of ground vegetation modifications.