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Evaluating the Stability of Double Emulsions—A Review of the Measurement Techniques for the Systematic Investigation of Instability Mechanisms

Leister, Nico ORCID iD icon; Karbstein, Heike P.


Double emulsions are very promising for various applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and food. Despite lots of published research, only a few products have successfully been marketed due to immense stability problems. This review describes approaches on how to characterize the stability of double emulsions. The measurement methods are used to investigate the influence of the ingredients or the process on the stability, as well as of the environmental conditions during storage. The described techniques are applied either to double emulsions themselves or to model systems. The presented analysis methods are based on microscopy, rheology, light scattering, marker detection, and differential scanning calorimetry. Many methods for the characterization of double emulsions focus only on the release of the inner water phase or of a marker encapsulated therein. Analysis methods for a specific application rarely give information on the actual mechanism, leading to double emulsion breakage. In contrast, model systems such as simple emulsions, microfluidic emulsions, or single-drop experiments allow for a systematic investigation of diffusion and coalescence between the individual phases. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000132144
Veröffentlicht am 12.05.2021
DOI: 10.3390/colloids4010008
Zitationen: 59
Zitationen: 67
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Bio- und Lebensmitteltechnik (BLT)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2504-5377
KITopen-ID: 1000132144
Erschienen in Colloids and Interfaces
Verlag MDPI
Band 4
Heft 1
Seiten 8
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 31.01.2020
Schlagwörter multiple emulsion; emulsion stability; coalescence; diffusion; encapsulation efficiency
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
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