Double emulsions are very promising for various applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and food. Despite lots of published research, only a few products have successfully been marketed due to immense stability problems. This review describes approaches on how to characterize the stability of double emulsions. The measurement methods are used to investigate the influence of the ingredients or the process on the stability, as well as of the environmental conditions during storage. The described techniques are applied either to double emulsions themselves or to model systems. The presented analysis methods are based on microscopy, rheology, light scattering, marker detection, and differential scanning calorimetry. Many methods for the characterization of double emulsions focus only on the release of the inner water phase or of a marker encapsulated therein. Analysis methods for a specific application rarely give information on the actual mechanism, leading to double emulsion breakage. In contrast, model systems such as simple emulsions, microfluidic emulsions, or single-drop experiments allow for a systematic investigation of diffusion and coalescence between the individual phases. ... mehrThey also give information on the order of magnitude in which they contribute to the failure of the overall system. This review gives an overview of various methods for the characterization of double emulsion stability, describing the underlying assumptions and the information gained. With this review, we intend to assist in the development of stable double emulsion-based products.