During breast cancer therapy, paclitaxel and trastuzumab are both associated with adverse effects such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and other systemic side effects including ocular complications. Corneal nerves are considered part of the peripheral nervous system and can be imaged non-invasively by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on the cellular level. Thus, in vivo CLSM imaging of structures of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) such as sensory nerves or dendritic cells (DCs) can be a powerful tool for the assessment of corneal complications during cancer treatment. During the present study, the SNP of a breast cancer patient was analyzed over time by using large-scale in vivo CLSM in the course of paclitaxel and trastuzumab therapy. The same corneal regions could be re-identified over time. While the subbasal nerve morphology did not alter significantly, a change in dendritic cell density and an additional local burst within the first 11 weeks of therapy was detected, indicating treatment-mediated corneal inflammatory processes. Ocular structures such as nerves and dendritic cells could represent useful biomarkers for the assessment of ocular adverse effects during cancer therapy and their management, leading to a better visual prognosis.