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Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albury, J. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Araújo Ferreira, P. R.; Arteaga Velázquez, J. C.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; ... mehr

To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above 10$^{16.5}$ eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 m$^{2}$-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m2 close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m2 when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000133579
Veröffentlicht am 01.06.2021
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/16/04/P04003
Zitationen: 1
Zitationen: 2
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Astroteilchenphysik (IAP)
Institut für Experimentelle Teilchenphysik (ETP)
Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik (IPE)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1748-0221
KITopen-ID: 1000133579
HGF-Programm 51.13.03 (POF IV, LK 01) Kosmische Strahlung Auger
Erschienen in Journal of Instrumentation
Verlag Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd (IOP Publishing Ltd)
Band 16
Heft 4
Seiten Art.-Nr.: P04003
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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