A multifaceted simulation procedure, addressing the electron beam properties, the beam-wave interaction, and the internal losses, has been used for the simulation of the experimental operation of a 1.5-MW 140-GHz short-pulse preprototype gyrotron. The preprototype is related to the development of 1.5-MW gyrotrons for the upgrade of the electron cyclotron resonance heating system at the stellarator W7-X. A very good reproduction of experimental results has been achieved by simulation, without resorting to arbitrary speculations. This validated the numerical tools as well as the design and fabrication of the short-pulse preprototype, which fully reached the target of efficient 1.5-MW operation in millisecond pulses. Special attention has been given to simulating the possibility of parasitic after-cavity interaction in the gyrotron launcher. Also, parasitic backward-wave excitation in the gyrotron cavity has been demonstrated by simulation, at a frequency and voltage range in agreement with experimentally observed parasitic oscillations. This offers an additional possibility with respect to the origin of deleterious parasitic oscillations in high-power gyrotrons, which are usually attributed mainly to the gyrotron beam tunnel.