# Damage mechanisms in superconductors due to the impact of high energy proton beams and radiation tolerance of cryogenic diodes used in particle accelerator magnet systems

Will, Andreas

## Abstract (englisch):

High energy hadron accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its planned upgrade to achieve higher luminosity, the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), require superconducting magnets to provide strong magnetic fields, needed to steer and focus the particle beams at these high energies. During operation the superconducting magnets and their components are exposed to radiation resulting from primary and secondary particles from two main sources of beam losses.
During normal operation, steady state losses resulting from interaction of the particle beams with residual gas molecules or from particle debris in interaction points affect the accelerator magnets and their components along the machine. In case of failures, significant parts of the beam can be lost in a short time, resulting in localized damage due to heating from energy deposition, which in turn causes thermo-mechanical stresses and strains.
In the HL-LHC, novel focusing superconducting quadrupole magnets will be installed, based on Nb$_3$Sn and located close to the interaction points. Furthermore, the beam intensity will be doubled. Both, steady state losses and the severity of losses due to fast failures scale with the beam intensity. ... mehr

 Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Laboratorium für Applikationen der Synchrotronstrahlung (LAS) Publikationstyp Hochschulschrift Publikationsdatum 02.07.2021 Sprache Englisch Identifikator KITopen-ID: 1000134497 Verlag Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) Umfang IV, 144 S. Art der Arbeit Dissertation Fakultät Fakultät für Physik (PHYSIK) Institut Laboratorium für Applikationen der Synchrotronstrahlung (LAS) Prüfungsdatum 23.04.2021 Schlagwörter CERN, LHC, HL-LHC, particle accelerator, superconductor, superconducting magnets, radiation damage, magnet protection Referent/Betreuer Müller, A.-S.
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