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Characterization of Aggregated Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Load as a Flexibility Service Using Gray‐Box Modeling

Kohlhepp, Peter 1; Gröll, Lutz 1; Hagenmeyer, Veit 1
1 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Integrating large amounts of volatile renewable power into the electricity grid requires ancillary services (ASs) from multiple providers including flexible demand. These should be comparable by uniform and efficiently evaluable performance criteria. The objective is to characterize the technical flexibility of aggregated building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) under different operating conditions. New bounds of flexible power and holding durations, accordingly pay-back power and recovery times, and ramping rates are derived, using a new gray-box model of stochastically actuated aggregations of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) that can serve as well for load control. New closed formulas of the expected switching temperatures are derived using survival processes and hazard functions. This ex-ante characterization enables fast decision tools for AS feasibility testing and planning by demand aggregators, as it neither relies on simulation or optimization, nor on the identification and clustering of unit-level parameters. The estimates are explored in a sensitivity study of urban-level heat pump heating with respect to six key input factors. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000135931
Veröffentlicht am 28.07.2021
DOI: 10.1002/ente.202100251
Zitationen: 6
Zitationen: 4
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Automation und angewandte Informatik (IAI)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2194-4288, 2194-4296
KITopen-ID: 1000135931
HGF-Programm 37.12.01 (POF IV, LK 01) Digitalization & System Technology for Flexibility Solutions
Erschienen in Energy technology
Verlag Wiley-VCH Verlag
Band 9
Heft 9
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 2100251
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 18.06.2021
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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