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Timing Calibration and Windowing Technique Comparison for Lightning Mapping Arrays

Hare, B. M.; Edens, H.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T. 1; Krampah, G. K.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Pandya, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Veen, S. ter; ... mehr

Abstract:

Since their introduction 22 years ago, lightning mapping arrays (LMA) have played a central role in the investigation of lightning physics. Even in recent years with the proliferation of digital interferometers and the introduction of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, LMAs still play an important role in lightning science. LMA networks use a simple windowing technique that records the highest pulse in either 80 μs or 10 μs fixed windows in order to apply a time-of-arrival location technique. In this work, we develop an LMA-emulator that uses lightning data recorded by LOFAR to simulate an LMA, and we use it to test three new styles of pulse windowing. We show that they produce very similar results as the more traditional LMA windowing, implying that LMA lightning mapping results are relatively independent of windowing technique. In addition, each LMA station has its GPS-conditioned clock. While the timing accuracy of GPS receivers has improved significantly over the years, they still significantly limit the timing measurements of the LMA. Recently, new time-of-arrival techniques have been introduced that can be used to self-calibrate systematic offsets between different receiving stations. ... mehr


Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000136948
Veröffentlicht am 23.09.2021
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Astroteilchenphysik (IAP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2333-5084
KITopen-ID: 1000136948
HGF-Programm 51.13.04 (POF IV, LK 01) Kosmische Strahlung Technologien
Erschienen in Earth and Space Science
Verlag American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Band 8
Heft 7
Seiten e2020EA001523
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 10.06.2021
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Dimensions
Scopus
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