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Redox-Mediated Red-Phosphorous Semi-Liquid Anode Enabling Metal-Free Rechargeable Na-Seawater Batteries with High Energy Density

Kim, Yongil 1; Varzi, Alberto ORCID iD icon 1; Mariani, Alessandro 1; Kim, Guk-Tae 1; Kim, Y.; Passerini, Stefano 1
1 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Sodium-seawater batteries (Na-SWB) are considered among the most promising electrochemical devices for large-scale energy storage and the marine sector. In fact, by employing an open-structured cathode, they benefit from the unlimited supply of sodium from seawater. This means, that the energy of such systems is intrinsically limited by the capacity of the anode. In order to increase the energy of Na-SWB, it is therefore necessary to introduce a high-capacity anode such as, e.g., red phosphorus. However, due to its large volume changes upon charge/discharge processes, obtaining thick electrodes and large areal capacity is extremely challenging. Herein, the areal/absolute capacity of the red phosphorus anode is increased by employing a semi-liquid electrode, which includes two redox mediators, i.e., sodium-biphenyl and sodium-pyrene, as reducing and oxidizing species for the exploitation of the full red phosphorus capacity. As a result, the red phosphorus semi-liquid anode in Na-SWB provides a high-capacity of 15 mAh cm–2 in a static anode, showing great energy storage potential for operation in flow-mode when storing the semi-liquid negative electrode in a storage tank.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000137474
Veröffentlicht am 21.09.2021
DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202102061
Zitationen: 15
Zitationen: 13
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU)
Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT)
Institut für Physikalische Chemie (IPC)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsdatum 14.10.2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1614-6832, 1614-6840
KITopen-ID: 1000137474
HGF-Programm 38.02.01 (POF IV, LK 01) Fundamentals and Materials
Erschienen in Advanced Energy Materials
Verlag Wiley-VCH Verlag
Band 11
Heft 38
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 2102061
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 01.09.2021
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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