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Versatile 3D-Printed Micro-Reference Electrodes for Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Solutions

Schuett, Fabian M.; Zeller, Sven J. 1; Eckl, Maximilian J.; Matzik, Felix M.; Heubach, Maren-Kathrin; Geng, Tanja; Hermann, Johannes M.; Uhl, Matthias; Kibler, Ludwig A.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Jacob, Timo 1
1 Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ulm & Karlsruhe (CELEST), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


While numerous reference electrodes suitable for aqueous electrolytes exist, there is no well-defined standard for non-aqueous electrolytes. Furthermore, reference electrodes are often large and do not meet the size requirements for small cells. In this work, we present a simple method for fabricating stable 3D-printed micro-reference electrodes. The prints are made from polyvinylidene fluoride, which is chemically inert in strong acids, bases, and commonly used non-aqueous solvents. We chose six different reference systems based on Ag, Cu, Zn, and Na, including three aqueous and three non-aqueous systems to demonstrate the versatility of the approach. Subsequently, we conducted cyclic voltammetry experiments and measured the potential difference between the aqueous homemade reference electrodes and a commercial Ag/AgCl-electrode. For the non-aqueous reference electrodes, we chose the ferrocene redox couple as an internal standard. From these measurements, we deduced that this new class of micro-reference electrodes is leak-tight and shows a stable electrode potential.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000137773
Veröffentlicht am 23.09.2021
DOI: 10.1002/anie.202105871
Zitationen: 6
Web of Science
Zitationen: 5
Zitationen: 6
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsdatum 11.10.2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1433-7851, 0570-0833, 1521-3773
KITopen-ID: 1000137773
HGF-Programm 38.02.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Components and Cells
Erschienen in Angewandte Chemie - International Edition
Verlag John Wiley and Sons
Band 60
Heft 42
Seiten 22783-22790
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 23.08.2021
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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