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The Combinatorial Fusion Cascade to Generate the Standard Genetic Code

Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander 1; Popov, Roman 1
1 Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Combinatorial fusion cascade was proposed as a transition stage between prebiotic chemistry and early forms of life. The combinatorial fusion cascade consists of three stages: eight initial complimentary pairs of amino acids, four protocodes, and the standard genetic code. The initial complimentary pairs and the protocodes are divided into dominant and recessive entities. The transitions between these stages obey the same combinatorial fusion rules for all amino acids. The combinatorial fusion cascade mathematically describes the codon assignments in the standard genetic code. It explains the availability of amino acids with the even and odd numbers of codons, the appearance of stop codons, inclusion of novel canonical amino acids, exceptional high numbers of codons for amino acids arginine, leucine, and serine, and the temporal order of amino acid inclusion into the genetic code. The temporal order of amino acids within the cascade is congruent with the consensus temporal order previously derived from the similarities between the available hypotheses. The control over the combinatorial fusion cascades would open the road for a novel technology to develop artificial microorganisms

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000137882
Veröffentlicht am 23.09.2021
DOI: 10.3390/life11090975
Zitationen: 2
Zitationen: 3
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2075-1729
KITopen-ID: 1000137882
HGF-Programm 47.14.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Information Storage and Processing in the Cell Nucleus
Erschienen in Life
Verlag MDPI
Band 11
Heft 9
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 975
Bemerkung zur Veröffentlichung This article belongs to the Special Issue The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Systems Chemistry Perspective
Gefördert durch den KIT-Publikationsfonds
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 16.09.2021
Schlagwörter origin of genetic code; prebiotic chemistry; time order of canonical amino acids
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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