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Hydrothermal carbonization of fructose—effect of salts and reactor stirring on the growth and formation of carbon spheres

Jung, Dennis; Duman, Gözde; Zimmermann, Michael 1; Kruse, Andrea; Yanik, Jale
1 Institut für Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has become a promising technology for the production of hydrochar and carbon spheres. Several studies indicate a strong dependency of the reaction conditions on the sphere diameter. The usage of additives, such as salts, is one possibility to increase the size of the spheres. However, the growth mechanism which leads to larger particles is not fully understood. In this work, kinetic studies of HTC with fructose were performed with different salts as additives. The growth of the particles (the increase in size) has been compared to the formation rates (increase in yield) of hydrochar by using the reaction rate constants from the kinetic model. The results indicate that the acceleration of the growth rate is independent of the formation rate. It is therefore assumed that coagulation, as a growth mechanism, took place. With longer reaction times, the particles reached a stable particle size, independently from the added salts; therefore, it was assumed that the particles underwent some sort of solidification. The state of matter can therefore be described as an intermediate state between liquid and solid, similar to mesophase pitch. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000138303
Veröffentlicht am 30.09.2021
DOI: 10.1007/s13399-021-01782-6
Zitationen: 7
Web of Science
Zitationen: 7
Zitationen: 6
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2190-6815, 2190-6823
KITopen-ID: 1000138303
HGF-Programm 38.05.01 (POF IV, LK 01) Anthropogenic Carbon Cycle
Erschienen in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Verlag Springer
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 21.08.2021
Schlagwörter Bioeconomy, Carbon spheres, Hydrothermal carbonization, Kinetic model
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
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