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Challenges and Common Solutions in Smart Contract Development

Kannengießer, Niclas ORCID iD icon; Lins, Sebastian; Sander, Christian; Winter, Klaus; Frey, Hellmuth; Sunyaev, Ali


Smart contracts are a promising means of formalizing and reliably enforcing agreements between entities using distributed ledger technology (DLT). Research has revealed that a significant number of smart contracts are subject to programming flaws, making them vulnerable to attacks and leading to detrimental effects, such as asset loss. Researchers and developers call for a thorough analysis of challenges to identify their causes and propose solutions. To respond to these calls, we conducted two literature reviews and diverse expert interviews and synthesized scattered knowledge on challenges and solutions. We identified 29 challenges (e.g., code visibility, code updateability, and encapsulation) and 60 solutions (e.g., gas limit specification, off-ledger computations, and shadowing). Moreover, we developed 20 software design patterns (SDPs) in collaboration with smart contract developers. The SDPs help developers adjust their programming habits and thus support them in their daily development practices. Our results provide actionable knowledge for smart contract developers to overcome the identified challenges and offer support for comparing smart contract integration concepts across three fundamentally different DLT protocols (i.e., Ethereum, EOSIO, and Hyperledger Fabric). ... mehr

DOI: 10.1109/TSE.2021.3116808
Zitationen: 3
Zitationen: 5
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Informatik und Formale Beschreibungsverfahren (AIFB)
Kompetenzzentrum für angewandte Sicherheitstechnologie (KASTEL)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 11.2022
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0098-5589, 1939-3520, 2326-3881
KITopen-ID: 1000138345
HGF-Programm 46.23.01 (POF IV, LK 01) Methods for Engineering Secure Systems
Erschienen in IEEE transactions on software engineering
Verlag Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Band 48
Heft 11
Seiten 4291-4318
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 01.10.2021
Schlagwörter Blockchain, Distributed Ledger Technology, Decentralized Applications (DApps), Patterns, Smart Contracts, Software Development
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
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