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Assessing the Application-Specific Substitutability of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Chemistries Based on Material Criticality, Performance, and Price

Kiemel, Steffen; Glöser-Chahoud, Simon; Waltersmann, Lara; Schutzbach, Maximilian; Sauer, Alexander; Miehe, Robert


The material use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is widely discussed in public and scientific discourse. Cathodes of state-of-the-art LIBs are partially comprised of high-priced raw materials mined under alarming ecological and social circumstances. Moreover, battery manufacturers are searching for cathode chemistries that represent a trade-off between low costs and an acceptable material criticality of the comprised elements while fulfilling the performance requirements for the respective application of the LIB. This article provides an assessment of the substitutability of common LIB cathode chemistries (NMC 111, −532, −622, −811, NCA 3%, −9%, LMO, LFP, and LCO) for five major fields of application (traction batteries, stationary energy storage systems, consumer electronics, power-/garden tools, and domestic appliances). Therefore, we provide a tailored methodology for evaluating the substitutability of products or components and critically reflect on the results. Outcomes show that LFP is the preferable cathode chemistry while LCO obtains the worst rating for all fields of application under the assumptions made (as well as the weighting of the considered categories derived from an expert survey). ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000138353
Veröffentlicht am 30.09.2021
DOI: 10.3390/resources10090087
Zitationen: 1
Zitationen: 2
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2079-9276
KITopen-ID: 1000138353
Erschienen in Resources
Verlag MDPI
Band 10
Heft 9
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 87
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 25.08.2021
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