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Multi‐Photon 4D Printing of Complex Liquid Crystalline Microstructures by In Situ Alignment Using Electric Fields

Münchinger, Alexander 1; Hahn, Vincent 1; Beutel, Dominik ORCID iD icon 2; Woska, Simon ORCID iD icon 1; Monti, Joël; Rockstuhl, Carsten 2; Blasco, Eva 3; Wegener, Martin 1
1 Institut für Angewandte Physik (APH), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik (TFP), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
3 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


An approach is presented to align the direction of liquid crystal networks or elastomers in situ during multi-photon laser printing for each voxel in three dimensions by applying a quasi-static electric field with variable orientation. This approach enables the making of 3D micro-heterostructures operating under ambient conditions that show large-amplitude elastic actuation, with temperature serving as the stimulus (“4D microstructures”). The approach involves two novelties. First, a dedicated sample cell with a variable height suitable for laser printing is introduced. It is based on optically transparent electrodes and allows to apply arbitrary electric field vectors in three dimensions, for example, parallel or normal to the substrate plane. Second, a variable optical phase plate combined with a pivotable half-wave plate warrants a single well-defined laser focus for nearly all possible quasi-static electric field vectors. Without the latter, one generally obtains two spatially separated laser foci, an ordinary and an extraordinary one, due to the optical birefringence of the medium induced by the alignment of the liquid crystal director via the applied quasi-static electric field. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000138701
Veröffentlicht am 05.10.2021
DOI: 10.1002/admt.202100944
Zitationen: 34
Web of Science
Zitationen: 32
Zitationen: 34
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Physik (APH)
Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT)
Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik (TFP)
Universität Karlsruhe (TH) – Interfakultative Einrichtungen (Interfakultative Einrichtungen)
Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics (KSOP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2365-709X, 2365-709X
KITopen-ID: 1000138701
HGF-Programm 43.32.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Designed Optical Materials
Erschienen in Advanced materials technologies
Verlag John Wiley and Sons
Band 7
Heft 1
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 2100944
Bemerkung zur Veröffentlichung This article also appears in Hot Topic: Liquid Crystals
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 24.09.2021
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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