To enhance the estimation accuracy of economic loss and casualty in seismic risk assessment, a high-resolution building exposure model is necessary. Previous studies in developing global and regional building exposure models usually use coarse administrative-level (e.g. country or sub-country level) census data as model inputs, which cannot fully reflect the spatial heterogeneity of buildings in large countries like China. To develop a high-resolution residential building stock model for mainland China, this paper uses finer urbanity-level population and building-related statistics extracted from the records in the tabulation of the 2010 population census of the People's Republic of China (hereafter abbreviated as the “2010 census”). In the 2010 census records, for each province, the building-related statistics are categorized into three urbanity levels (urban, township, and rural). To disaggregate these statistics into high-resolution grid level, we need to determine the urbanity attributes of grids within each province. For this purpose, the geo-coded population density profile (with 1 km × 1 km resolution) developed in the 2015 Global Human Settlement Layer (GSHL) project is selected. ... mehrThen for each province, the grids are assigned with urban, township, or rural attributes according to the population density in the 2015 GHSL profile. Next, the urbanity-level building-related statistics can be disaggregated into grids, and the 2015 GHSL population in each grid is used as the disaggregation weight. Based on the four structure types (steel and reinforced concrete, mixed, brick and wood, other) and five storey classes (1, 2–3, 4–6, 7–9, ≥10) of residential buildings classified in the 2010 census records, we reclassify the residential buildings into 17 building subtypes attached with both structure type and storey class and estimate their unit construction prices. Finally, we develop a geo-coded 1 km × 1 km resolution residential building exposure model for 31 provinces of mainland China. In each 1 km × 1 km grid, the floor areas of the 17 residential building subtypes and their replacement values are estimated. The model performance is evaluated to be satisfactory, and its practicability in seismic risk assessment is also confirmed. Limitations of the proposed model and directions for future improvement are discussed. The whole modelling process presented in this paper is fully reproducible, and all the modelled results are publicly accessible.