The U-O phase diagram is of paramount interest for nuclear-related applications and has therefore been extensively studied. Experimental data have been gathered to feed the thermodynamic calculations and achieve an optimization of the U-O system modelling. Although considered as well established, a critical assessment of this large body of experimental data is necessary, especially in light of the recent development of new techniques applicable to actinide materials. Here we show how in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) is suitable and relevant for phase diagram determination. New experimental data points have been collected using this method and discussed in regard to the available data. Comparing our experimental data with thermodynamic calculations, we observe that the current version of the U-O phase diagram misses some experimental data in specific domains. This lack of experimental data generates inaccuracy in the model, which can be overcome using in situ XANES. Indeed, as shown in the paper, this method is suitable for collecting experimental data in non-ambient conditions and for multiphasic systems.