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Elucidation of dross formation in laser powder bed fusion at down-facing surfaces : Phenomenon-oriented multiphysics simulation and experimental validation

Charles, Amal ORCID iD icon; Bayat, Mohamad; Elkaseer, Ahmed; Thijs, Lore; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Scholz, Steffen ORCID iD icon


Dross formation is a phenomenon that is observed while printing metallic components using Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) and occurring primarily at down-facing surfaces that are unsupported and suffer inadequate heat removal. Naturally, dross formation causes dimensional inaccuracy, high surface roughness and also adversely affects the mechanical properties of printed components. Through simulation and experimentation, this study fundamentally elucidates the driving phenomenon behind dross formation. The simulation results, in terms of the degree of generated dross domain, well agree with the ones observed in the printed samples and the behaviour of the melt pool while moving from bulk material to the powder domain is clearly depicted in this study. The simulations show that due to the low thermal conductivity of loose powder and the inability to conduct heat away, the quasi steady state melt pool collapses while entering the powder domain and transitions to a keyhole-like melt mode which causes a pronounced drilling effect. This causes excessive melting known as dross that is seen both in the simulation and the experimental parts. This work also shows through simulation and experimentation the reasoning behind the production of larger and smaller dross domains while printing with high and low laser energy densities respectively. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000141420
Veröffentlicht am 21.12.2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102551
Zitationen: 12
Web of Science
Zitationen: 10
Zitationen: 12
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Automation und angewandte Informatik (IAI)
Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 02.2022
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2214-8604
KITopen-ID: 1000141420
HGF-Programm 43.31.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Devices and Applications
Erschienen in Additive manufacturing
Verlag Elsevier
Band 50
Seiten Article no: 102551
Projektinformation PAM^2 (EU, H2020, 721383)
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 11.12.2021
Schlagwörter Proposal ID - 2017-018 019629 , 3DP
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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