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The LiNiO$_2$ Cathode Active Material: A Comprehensive Study of Calcination Conditions and their Correlation with Physicochemical Properties. Part I. Structural Chemistry

Kurzhals, Philipp; Riewald, Felix; Bianchini, Matteo; Sommer, Heino; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Janek, Jürgen


Following the demand for increased energy density of lithium-ion batteries, the Ni content of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese oxide (NCM) cathode materials has been increased into the direction of LiNiO$_2$ (LNO), which regained the attention of both industry and academia. To understand the correlations between physicochemical parameters and electrochemical performance of LNO, a calcination study was performed with variation of precursor secondary particle size, maximum calcination temperature and Li stoichiometry. The structural properties of the materials were analyzed by means of powder X-ray diffraction, magnetization measurements and half-cell voltage profiles. All three techniques yield good agreement concerning the quantification of Ni excess in the Li layer (1.6%–3.7%). This study reveals that the number of Li equivalents per Ni is the determining factor concerning the final stoichiometry rather than the calcination temperature within the used calcination parameter space. Contrary to widespread belief, the Ni excess shows no correlation to the 1$^{st}$ cycle capacity loss, which indicates that a formerly overlooked physical property of LNO, namely primary particle morphology, has to be considered.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000141673
Veröffentlicht am 10.01.2022
DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ac33e5
Zitationen: 22
Web of Science
Zitationen: 22
Zitationen: 26
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0013-4651, 0096-4743, 0096-4786, 1945-6859, 1945-7111, 2156-7395
KITopen-ID: 1000141673
HGF-Programm 38.02.01 (POF IV, LK 01) Fundamentals and Materials
Erschienen in Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Verlag Electrochemical Society
Band 168
Heft 11
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 110518
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
Web of Science
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