The phenomenon in which the warming rate of air temperature is amplified with elevation is termed elevation-dependent warming (EDW). It has been clarified that EDW can accelerate the retreat of glaciers and melting of snow, which can have significant impacts on the regional ecological environment. Owing to the lack of high-density ground observations in high mountains, there is widespread controversy regarding the existence of EDW. Current evidence is mainly derived from typical high-mountain regions such as the Swiss Alps, the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the tropical Andes and the Tibetan Plateau–Himalayas. Rare evidence in other mountain ranges has been reported, especially in arid regions. In this study, EDW features (regional warming amplification and altitude warming amplification) in the Chinese Tian Shan (CTM) were detected using a unique high-resolution (1 km, 6-hourly) air temperature dataset (CTMD) from 1979 to 2016. The results showed that there were significant EDW signals at different altitudes on different timescales. The CTM showed significant regional warming amplification in spring, especially in March, and the warming trends were greater than those of continental China with respect to three temperatures (minimum temperature, mean temperature and maximum temperature). ... mehrThe significance values of EDW above different altitude thresholds are distinct for three temperatures in 12 months. The warming rate of the minimum temperature in winter showed a significant elevation dependence (p<0.01), especially above 3000 m. The greatest altitudinal gradient in the warming rate of the maximum temperature was found above 4000 m in April. For the mean temperature, the warming rates in June and August showed prominent altitude warming amplification but with different significance above 4500 m. Within the CTM, the Tolm Mountains, the eastern part of the Borokoonu Mountains, the Bogda Mountains and the Balikun Mountains are representative regions that showed significant altitude warming amplification on different timescales. This new evidence could partly explain the accelerated melting of snow in the CTM, although the mechanisms remain to be explored.