The use of natural products in agriculture as pesticides has been strongly advocated. However, it is necessary to assess their toxicity to ensure their safe use. In the present study, mammalian cell lines and fish models of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) have been used to investigate the toxic effects of ten natural products which have potential applications as biopesticides. The fungal metabolites cavoxin, epi-epoformin, papyracillic acid, seiridin and sphaeropsidone, together with the plant compounds inuloxins A and C and ungeremine, showed no toxic effects in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. Conversely, cyclopaldic and α-costic acids, produced by Seiridium cupressi and Dittrichia viscosa, respectively, caused significant mortality in zebrafish and medaka embryos as a result of yolk coagulation. However, both compounds showed little effect in zebrafish or mammalian cell lines in culture, thus highlighting the importance of the fish embryotoxicity test in the assessment of environmental impact. Given the embryotoxicity of α-costic acid and cyclopaldic acid, their use as biopesticides is not recommended. ... mehrFurther ecotoxicological studies are needed to evaluate the potential applications of the other compounds.