Topologically nontrivial spin textures, such as skyrmions and dislocations, display emergent electrodynamics and can be moved by spin currents over macroscopic distances. These unique properties and their nanoscale size make them excellent candidates for the development of next-generation race-track memory and unconventional computing. A major challenge for these applications and the investigation of nanoscale magnetic structures in general is the realization of suitable detection schemes. We study magnetic disclinations, dislocations, and domain walls in FeGe and reveal pronounced responses that distinguish them from the helimagnetic background. A combination of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulations links the response to the local magnetic susceptibility, that is, characteristic changes in the spin texture driven by the MFM tip. On the basis of the findings, which we explain using nonlinear response theory, we propose a read-out scheme using superconducting microcoils, presenting an innovative approach for detecting topological spin textures and domain walls in device-relevant geometries.