The assessment of three-dimensional (3D) brain cytoarchitecture at a cellular resolution remains a great challenge in the field of neuroscience and constant development of imaging techniques has become crucial, particularly when it comes to offering direct and clear obtention of data from macro to nano scales. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron or optical microscopy, although valuable, still face some issues such as the lack of contrast and extensive sample preparation protocols. In this context, x-ray microtomography (μCT) has become a promising non-destructive tool for imaging a broad range of samples, from dense materials to soft biological specimens. It is a new supplemental method to be explored for deciphering the cytoarchitecture and connectivity of the brain. This review aims to bring together published works using x-ray μCT in neurobiology in order to discuss the achievements made so far and the future of this technique for neuroscience.