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Skin stimulation and recording: Moving towards metal-free electrodes

Shaner, Sebastian W. ; Islam, Monsur 1; Kristoffersen, Morten B.; Azmi, Raheleh 2; Heissler, Stefan 3; Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Korvink, Jan G. 1; Asplund, Maria
1 Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Angewandte Materialien – Energiespeichersysteme (IAM-ESS), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
3 Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


When one thinks about electrodes, especially ones meant for humans, one typically thinks of some kind of metal. Whether on the skin or in the brain, metal electrodes are characteristically expensive, stiff, non-efficient in electron-ion transduction, and prone to toxic metal ion by-products during stimulation. In order to circumvent these disadvantages, electrically-conductive laser-induced graphene (LIG) and mixed electron-ion conducting polymer (poly(3, 4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate – PEDOT:PSS) was leveraged to create a metal-free electrode combination that allows for an economical, soft, and organic electrode for applications on human skin. Compared to clinical-standard silver – silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) skin electrodes, the metal-free hydrogel electrodes show notable improvement in electrochemical stability and prolonged stable potentials during long-term DC stimulation (0.5–24 h). Recording and stimulation performance on human participants rivals that of Ag/AgCl, thus fortifying the notion that they are an appropriate progression to their noble metal counterparts.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000146488
Veröffentlicht am 31.05.2022
DOI: 10.1016/j.biosx.2022.100143
Zitationen: 7
Zitationen: 10
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Materialien – Energiespeichersysteme (IAM-ESS)
Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG)
Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 09.2022
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2590-1370
KITopen-ID: 1000146488
HGF-Programm 43.33.11 (POF IV, LK 01) Adaptive and Bioinstructive Materials Systems
Weitere HGF-Programme 43.35.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Functionality of Soft Matter and Biomolecular Systems
Erschienen in Biosensors and Bioelectronics: X
Verlag Elsevier
Band 11
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 100143
Schlagwörter Bioelectronics; Conducting hydrogels; Direct current stimulation; Skin electrodes
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
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