Despite being a decades-old problem, binary exploitation still remains a serious issue in computer security. It is mainly due to the prevalence of memory corruption errors in programs written with notoriously unsafe but yet indispensable programming languages like C and C++. For the past 30 years, the nip-and-tuck battle in memory between attackers and defenders has been getting more technical, versatile, and automated. With raised bar for exploitation in common information technology (IT) systems owing to hardened mitigation techniques, and with unintentionally opened doors into industrial control systems (ICS) due to the proliferation of industrial internet of things (IIoT), we argue that we will see an increased number of cyber attacks leveraging binary exploitation on ICS in the near future. However, while this topic generates a very rich and abundant body of research in common IT systems, there is a lack of systematic study targeting this topic in ICS. The present work aims at filling this gap and serves as a comprehensive walkthrough of binary exploitation in ICS. Apart from providing an analysis of the past cyber attacks leveraging binary exploitation on ICS and the ongoing attack surface transition, we give a review of the attack techniques and mitigation techniques on both general-purpose computers and embedded devices. ... mehrAt the end, we conclude this work by stressing the importance of network-based intrusion detection, considering the dominance of resource-constrained real-time embedded devices, low-end embedded devices in ICS, and the limited ability to deploy arbitrary defense mechanism directly on these devices.