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Sensing with Earables: A Systematic Literature Review and Taxonomy of Phenomena

Röddiger, Tobias ORCID iD icon 1; Clarke, Christopher; Breitling, Paula 1; Schneegans, Tim 2; Zhao, Haibin ORCID iD icon 1; Gellersen, Hans; Beigl, Michael 1
1 Institut für Telematik (TM), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Marketing (IISM), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Earables have emerged as a unique platform for ubiquitous computing by augmenting ear-worn devices with state-of-the-art sensing. This new platform has spurred a wealth of new research exploring what can be detected on a wearable, small form factor. As a sensing platform, the ears are less susceptible to motion artifacts and are located in close proximity to a number of important anatomical structures including the brain, blood vessels, and facial muscles which reveal a wealth of information. They can be easily reached by the hands and the ear canal itself is affected by mouth, face, and head movements. We have conducted a systematic literature review of 271 earable publications from the ACM and IEEE libraries. These were synthesized into an open-ended taxonomy of 47 different phenomena that can be sensed in, on, or around the ear. Through analysis, we identify 13 fundamental phenomena from which all other phenomena can be derived, and discuss the different sensors and sensing principles used to detect them. We comprehensively review the phenomena in four main areas of (i) physiological monitoring and health, (ii) movement and activity, (iii) interaction, and (iv) authentication and identification. ... mehr

Postprint §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000148882
Veröffentlicht am 15.08.2022
DOI: 10.1145/3550314
Zitationen: 30
Zitationen: 40
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Telematik (TM)
Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Marketing (IISM)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 09.2022
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2474-9567
KITopen-ID: 1000148882
Erschienen in Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies
Verlag Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Band 6
Heft 3
Seiten Article 135
Schlagwörter earables, hearables, earphones, headphones, earbuds, ear wearable, earpiece, ear-worn, ear-mounted, ear-attached, ear-based
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
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