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Design of Single-Atom Catalysts and Tracking Their Fate Using Operando and Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Tools

Sarma, Bidyut Bikash 1,2; Maurer, Florian ORCID iD icon 2; Doronkin, Dmitry E. ORCID iD icon 1,2; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk ORCID iD icon 1,2
1 Institut für Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie (ITCP), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


The potential of operando X-ray techniques for following the structure, fate, and active site of single-atom catalysts (SACs) is highlighted with emphasis on a synergetic approach of both topics. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related X-ray techniques have become fascinating tools to characterize solids and they can be applied to almost all the transition metals deriving information about the symmetry, oxidation state, local coordination, and many more structural and electronic properties. SACs, a newly coined concept, recently gained much attention in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. In this way, one can achieve a minimum use of the metal, theoretically highest efficiency, and the design of only one active site-so-called single site catalysts. While single sites are not easy to characterize especially under operating conditions, XAS as local probe together with complementary methods (infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy) is ideal in this research area to prove the structure of these sites and the dynamic changes during reaction. In this review, starting from their fundamentals, various techniques related to conventional XAS and X-ray photon in/out techniques applied to single sites are discussed with detailed mechanistic and in situ/operando studies. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000153060
Veröffentlicht am 24.11.2022
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.2c00495
Zitationen: 49
Zitationen: 60
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)
Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie (ITCP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 01.2023
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0009-2665, 1520-6890
KITopen-ID: 1000153060
HGF-Programm 38.03.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Power-based Fuels and Chemicals
Erschienen in Chemical Reviews
Verlag American Chemical Society (ACS)
Band 123
Heft 1
Seiten 379–444
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 23.11.2022
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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