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The Malolotsha Klippe: Large‐Scale Subhorizontal Tectonics Along the Southern Margin of the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt, Eswatini

Heubeck, Christoph ; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Heredia, Benjamin D.; Zeh, Armin 1; Balling, Philipp
1 Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften (AGW), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Whether Archean tectonics were horizontally or vertically dominated is controversially discussed because arguments bear on the kinematics and thermal state of the Archean mantle and constrain the mode of formation of the earliest continental crust. Highly deformed strata of Archean greenstone belts figure prominently in this debate because they record long periods of time and multiple deformation phases. Among the best-preserved greenstone belts counts the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) of southern Africa. Geological mapping of part of the southern BGB in Eswatini (Swaziland), combined with U-Pb zircon dating, shows that the region preserves a tightly re-folded imbricate thrust stack in which metavolcanic and -volcaniclastic strata of the Onverwacht Group, deposited at 3.34–3.29 Ga, have been thrust on top of ca. 3.22 Ga siliciclastic strata of the Moodies Group. The structurally highest element, the Malolotsha Syncline, forms a tectonic klippe of substantial size and is >1,450 m thick. Forward modeling of a balanced cross section indicates that this thrust stack was part of a northwestward-verging orogen along the southern margin of the BGB and records a minimum horizontal displacement of 33 km perpendicular to its present-day faulted, ductily strained and multiply metamorphosed margin. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000155734
Veröffentlicht am 10.02.2023
DOI: 10.1029/2022TC007359
Zitationen: 4
Web of Science
Zitationen: 4
Zitationen: 4
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften (AGW)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsdatum 03.01.2023
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0278-7407, 1944-9194
KITopen-ID: 1000155734
Erschienen in Tectonics
Verlag John Wiley and Sons
Band 42
Heft 1
Seiten Art.Nr.e2022TC007359
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 21.12.2022
Schlagwörter Greenstone Belt, Archean, Eswatini, Klippe, Barberton, Swaziland
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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