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Making protected areas effective for biodiversity, climate and food

Arneth, Almut 1,2; Leadley, Paul; Claudet, Joachim; Coll, Marta; Rondinini, Carlo; Rounsevell, Mark D. A. ORCID iD icon 1,2; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Alexander, Peter; Fuchs, Richard ORCID iD icon 1
1 Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung – Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie (IFGG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


The spatial extent of marine and terrestrial protected areas (PAs) was among the most intensely debated issues prior to the decision about the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Positive impacts of PAs on habitats, species diversity and abundance are well documented. Yet, biodiversity loss continues unabated despite efforts to protect 17% of land and 10% of the oceans by 2020. This casts doubt on whether extending PAs to 30%, the agreed target in the Kunming-Montreal GBF, will indeed achieve meaningful biodiversity benefits. Critically, the focus on area coverage obscures the importance of PA effectiveness and overlooks concerns about the impact of PAs on other sustainability objectives. We propose a simple means of assessing and visualising the complex relationships between PA area coverage and effectiveness and their effects on biodiversity conservation, nature-based climate mitigation and food production. Our analysis illustrates how achieving a 30% PA global target could be beneficial for biodiversity and climate. It also highlights important caveats: (i) achieving lofty area coverage objectives alone will be of little benefit without concomitant improvements in effectiveness, (ii) trade-offs with food production particularly for high levels of coverage and effectiveness are likely and (iii) important differences in terrestrial and marine systems need to be recognized when setting and implementing PA targets. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000157748
Veröffentlicht am 19.04.2023
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.16664
Zitationen: 10
Web of Science
Zitationen: 7
Zitationen: 14
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung – Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU)
Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie (IFGG)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2023
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1354-1013, 1365-2486
KITopen-ID: 1000157748
HGF-Programm 12.11.21 (POF IV, LK 01) Natural ecosystems as sources and sinks of GHGs
Erschienen in Global Change Biology
Verlag John Wiley and Sons
Band 29
Heft 14
Seiten 3883-3894
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 21.03.2023
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Globale Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung Ziel 2 – Kein HungerZiel 13 – Maßnahmen zum KlimaschutzZiel 14 – Leben unter WasserZiel 15 – Leben an Land
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