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Thermal and Mechanical Safety Assessment of Type 21700 Lithium-Ion Batteries with NMC, NCA and LFP Cathodes–Investigation of Cell Abuse by Means of Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC)

Ohneseit, Sebastian 1; Finster, Philipp ORCID iD icon 1; Floras, Claire; Lubenau, Niklas 1; Uhlmann, Nils 1; Seifert, Hans Jürgen 1; Ziebert, Carlos ORCID iD icon 1
1 Institut für Angewandte Materialien – Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (IAM-AWP), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


In this experimental investigation, we studied the safety and thermal runaway behavior of commercial lithium-ion batteries of type 21700. The different cathode materials NMC, NCA and LFP were compared, as well as high power and high energy cells. After characterization of all relevant components of the batteries to assure comparability, two abuse methods were applied: thermal abuse by the heat-wait-seek test and mechanical abuse by nail penetration, both in an accelerating rate calorimeter. Several critical temperatures and temperature rates, as well as exothermal data, were determined. Furthermore, the grade of destruction, mass loss and, for the thermal abuse scenario, activation energy and enthalpy, were calculated for critical points. It was found that NMC cells reacted first, but NCA cells went into thermal runaway a little earlier than NMC cells. LFP cells reacted, as expected, more slowly and at significantly higher temperatures, making the cell chemistry considerably safer. For mechanical abuse, no thermal runaway was observed for LFP cells, as well as at state of charge (SOC) zero for the other chemistries tested. For thermal abuse, at SOC 0 and SOC 30 for LFP cells and at SOC 0 for the other cell chemistries, no thermal runaway occurred until 350 °C. ... mehr

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000160506
Veröffentlicht am 13.07.2023
DOI: 10.3390/batteries9050237
Zitationen: 15
Web of Science
Zitationen: 11
Zitationen: 16
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Materialien – Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (IAM-AWP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2023
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2313-0105
KITopen-ID: 1000160506
HGF-Programm 38.02.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Components and Cells
Erschienen in Batteries
Verlag MDPI
Band 9
Heft 5
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 237
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 22.04.2023
Schlagwörter battery safety; cylindrical cell; 21700; commercial LIB; abuse testing; accelerating rate calorimetry; heat-wait-seek test; nail penetration test
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
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