Physiologically-based (or process-based) models are commonly applied to describe plant responses mechanistically in dependence on environmental conditions. They are increasingly evaluated with eddy-covariance measurements that integrate carbon and water exchange of an area of several hectares (called the fetch). However, almost all models applied to date in such exercises have considered only the dominant tree species and neglected other species that contributed to the measured gas exchange rates-either in separate patches or in mixture. This decreases the transferability of the model from one site to another because the contributions from other species might be different. It is therefore a major challenge in modeling today to separate the measured gas exchanges by sources. In this study, a detailed physiologically-based biosphere model is applied that allows distinguishing between tree species in mixed forests, considering them as «vegetation cohorts» that interact with each other. The sensitivity of the model to different assumptions about how different tree species contribute to an integrated measurement of standscale gas exchang ... mehre is investigated. The model exercise is carried out for a forest site in Finland with dominant Scots pine but presence of significant amounts of Norway spruce and birch. The results demonstrate that forest structure affects simulated gas exchange rates indicating a possible importance of considering differences in physiological properties at the species level. It is argued that the variation of stand structure within the range of eddy-covariance measurements should be better accounted for in models and that inventory measurements need to consider this variation.