[{"type":"article-journal","title":"An evaluation of tropical waves and wave forcing of the QBO in the QBOi models","issued":{"date-parts":[["2020"]]},"container-title":"Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society","DOI":"10.1002\/qj.3827","author":[{"family":"Holt","given":"Laura A."},{"family":"Lott","given":"Fran\u00e7ois"},{"family":"Garcia","given":"Rolando R."},{"family":"Kiladis","given":"George N."},{"family":"Cheng","given":"Yuan\u2010Ming"},{"family":"Anstey","given":"James A."},{"family":"Braesicke","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Bushell","given":"Andrew C."},{"family":"Butchart","given":"Neal"},{"family":"Cagnazzo","given":"Chiara"},{"family":"Chen","given":"Chih\u2010Chieh"},{"family":"Chun","given":"Hye\u2010Yeong"},{"family":"Kawatani","given":"Yoshio"},{"family":"Kerzenmacher","given":"Tobias"},{"family":"Kim","given":"Young\u2010Ha"},{"family":"McLandress","given":"Charles"},{"family":"Naoe","given":"Hiroaki"},{"family":"Osprey","given":"Scott"},{"family":"Richter","given":"Jadwiga H."},{"family":"Scaife","given":"Adam A."},{"family":"Scinocca","given":"John"},{"family":"Serva","given":"Federico"},{"family":"Versick","given":"Stefan"},{"family":"Watanabe","given":"Shingo"},{"family":"Yoshida","given":"Kohei"},{"family":"Yukimoto","given":"Seiji"}],"publisher":"John Wiley and Sons","ISSN":"0035-9009, 1477-870X","abstract":"We analyze the stratospheric waves in models participating in phase 1 of the Stratosphere\u2013troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Quasi\u2010Biennial Oscillation initiative (QBOi). All models have robust Kelvin and mixed Rossby\u2010gravity wave modes in winds and temperatures at 50\u2009hPa and represent them better than most of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. There is still some spread among the models, especially concerning the mixed Rossby\u2010gravity waves. We attribute the variability in equatorial waves among the QBOi models in part to the varying horizontal and vertical resolutions, to systematic biases in zonal winds, and to the considerable variability in convectively coupled waves in the troposphere among the models: only roughly half of the QBOi models have realistic convectively coupled Kelvin waves and only a few models have convectively coupled mixed Rossby\u2010gravity waves. The models with stronger convectively coupled waves tend to produce larger zonal mean forcing due to resolved waves in the QBO region. Finally we evaluate the Eliassen\u2013Palm (EP) flux and EP flux divergence of the resolved waves in the QBOi models. We find that there is a large spread in the forcing from resolved waves in the QBO region, and the resolved wave forcing has a robust correlation with model vertical resolution.","keyword":"equatorial waves, quasi\u2010biennial oscillation, wave\u2013mean flow interaction","kit-publication-id":"1000123565"}]