Decoherence and parameter fluctuations are two of the mayor obstacles for solid-state quantum computing.
In this work, decoherence in superconducting qubits of the transmon type is investigated. For this purpose, a time-multiplexed measurement protocol was developed and applied in long-term measurements. The resulting simultaneous measurement of the qubit's relaxation and dephasing rate, as well as its resonance frequency enables analysis of correlations between these parameters. A spectral noise analysis complements these measurements. Together, the results agree well with the interacting defect model of two-level-systems and yield information about the microscopic origin of the intrinsic decoherence mechanisms in Josephson qubits.
Our measurements show inherent correlations between dephasing and fluctuations in qubit frequency on the timescale of seconds to days, which is attributed to the influence of individual defects, located close to conductor edges. Cross-correlation and spectral noise analysis confirm this interpretation and ascribe the source of fluctuation to interactions between thermal fluctuators and surface defects. ... mehrSingle defects reducing the coherence of qubits by up to one order of magnitude are a major challenge for future quantum computers.
Non-tunable qubits are intrinsically insensitive to some decoherence channels and thus ideal for this fundamental analysis. However, to widen the focus and contrast the results of different material systems, we pursue the fabrication of voltage controlled gatemon qubits. In the course of this work, the theoretical foundation and technical implementation of transmon qubits based on regular Josephson weak links, and semiconducting nanowires is given. The experimental design and measurement setup are explained in detail.
Our findings make continuous re-calibration a necessity in today's solid-state qubits, although new materials or processing techniques might mitigate the problem. However, the results of this work imply that fundamental improvements of qubit parameter stability are necessary in order to realize scalable and coherent qubit circuits.