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Assessment on the Use of High Capacity “Sn$_{4}$P$_{3}$”/NHC Composite Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Ether and Carbonate Electrolytes [in press]

Palaniselvam, T.; Mukundan, C.; Hasa, I.; Santhosha, A. L.; Goktas, M.; Moon, H.; Ruttert, M.; Schmuch, R.; Pollok, K.; Langenhorst, F.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.; Adelhelm, P.

Abstract:
This work reports the facile synthesis of a Sn–P composite combined with nitrogen doped hard carbon (NHC) obtained by ball-milling and its use as electrode material for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). The “Sn$_{4}$P$_{3}$”/NHC electrode (with nominal composition “Sn$_{4}$P$_{3}$”:NHC = 75:25 wt%) when coupled with a diglyme-based electrolyte rather than the most commonly employed carbonate-based systems, exhibits a reversible capacity of 550 mAh g$_{electrode}$$^{−1}$ at 50 mA g$^{−1}$ and 440 mAh g$_{electrode}$$^{−1}$ over 500 cycles (83% capacity retention). Morphology and solid electrolyte interphase formation of cycled “Sn$_{4}$P$_{3}$”/NHC electrodes is studied via electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The expansion of the electrode upon sodiation (300 mAh g$_{electrode}$$^{−1}$) is only about 12–14% as determined by in situ electrochemical dilatometry, giving a reasonable explanation for the excellent cycle life despite the conversion-type storage mechanism. In situ X-ray diffraction shows that the discharge product is Na$_{15}$Sn$_{4}$. The formation of mostly amorphous Na$_{3}$P is derived from the overall (electro)chemical reactions. ... mehr

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Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000123535
Veröffentlicht am 24.09.2020
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1057-9257, 1099-0712, 1616-301X, 1616-3028
KITopen-ID: 1000123535
Erschienen in Advanced functional materials
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 2004798
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 20.08.2020
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Scopus
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