A multiphase-field approach for elasto-plastic and anisotropic brittle crack propagation in geological systems consisting of different regions of brittle and ductile materials is presented and employed to computationally study crack propagation. Plastic deformation in elasto-plastic materials such as frictional, granular or porous materials is modelled with the pressure-sensitive Drucker-Prager plasticity model. This plasticity model is combined with a multiphase-field model fulfilling the mechanical jump conditions in diffuse solid-solid interfaces. The validity of the plasticity model with phase-inherent stress and strain fields is shown, in comparison with sharp interface finite element solutions. The proposed model is capable of simulating crack formation in heterogeneous multiphase systems comprising both purely elastic and inelastic phases. We investigate the influence of different material parameters on the crack propagation with tensile tests in single- and two-phase materials. To show the applicability of the model, crack propagation in a multiphase domain with brittle and elasto-plastic components is performed.