The increasing need to slow down climate change for environmental protection demands further advancements toward regenerative energy and sustainable mobility. While individual mobility applications are assumed to be satisfied with improving battery electric vehicles (BEVs), the growing sector of freight transport and heavy-duty applications requires alternative solutions to meet the requirements of long ranges and high payloads. Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) emerge as a capable technology for high-energy applications. This technology comprises a fuel cell system (FCS) for energy supply combined with buffering energy storages, such as batteries or ultracapacitors. In this article, recent successful developments regarding FCHEVs in various heavy-duty applications are presented. Subsequently, an overview of the FCHEV drivetrain, its main components, and different topologies with an emphasis on heavy-duty trucks is given. In order to enable system layout optimization and energy management strategy (EMS) design, functionality and modeling approaches for the FCS, battery, ultracapacitor, and further relevant subsystems are briefly described. ... mehrAfterward, common methodologies for EMS are structured, presenting a new taxonomy for dynamic optimization-based EMS from a control engineering perspective. Finally, the findings lead to a guideline toward holistic EMS, encouraging the co-optimization of system design, and EMS development for FCHEVs. For the EMS, we propose a layered model predictive control (MPC) approach, which takes velocity planning, the mitigation of degradation effects, and the auxiliaries into account simultaneously.