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High spatial and temporal resolution energy flux mapping of different land covers using an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial system

Simpson, Jake E.; Holman, Fenner; Nieto, Hector; Voelksch, Ingo; Mauder, Matthias; Klatt, Janina; Fiener, Peter; Kaplan, Jed O.

With the development of low-cost, lightweight, integrated thermal infrared-multispectral cameras, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have recently become a flexible complement to eddy covariance (EC) station methods for mapping surface energy fluxes of vegetated areas. These sensors facilitate the measurement of several site characteristics in one flight (e.g., radiometric temperature, vegetation indices, vegetation structure), which can be used alongside in-situ meteorology data to provide spatially-distributed estimates of energy fluxes at very high resolution. Here we test one such system (MicaSense Altum) integrated into an off-the-shelf long-range vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle, and apply and evaluate our method by comparing flux estimates with EC-derived data, with specific and novel focus on heterogeneous vegetation communities at three different sites in Germany. Firstly, we present an empirical method for calibrating airborne radiometric temperature in standard units (K) using the Altum multispectral and thermal infrared instrument. Then we provide detailed methods using the two-source energy balance model (TSEB) for mapping net radiation (Rn), sensible (H), latent (LE) and ground (G) heat fluxes at <0.82 m resolution, with root mean square errors (RMSE) less than 45, 37, 39, 52 W m−2 respectively. ... mehr

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Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000131670
Veröffentlicht am 23.04.2021
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2072-4292
KITopen-ID: 1000131670
Erschienen in Remote Sensing
Verlag MDPI
Band 13
Heft 7
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 1286
Schlagwörter unmanned aerial system; UAS; eddy covariance; thermal infrared camera; energy balance; TSEB; DTD; Altum; Trinity F90+; evapotranspiration
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
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