In addition to the intended effects, the increasing use of artificial outdoor lighting also entails a number of undesirable side effects referred to as light pollution.
Artificial lighting can disturb the circadian rhythms of humans and animals, which are controlled by the change of day and night, and is suspected of being involved in the development of various diseases.
Moreover, the increasing illumination of the night influences the natural behaviour of animals. Besides habitat changes, the consequences are ranging from changes in hunting or reproductive behaviour to the deadly attraction effect of light sources, e. g. for insects. However, the longterm consequences of these changes for entire populations, communities or landscapes are still poorly understood.
Options for reducing light pollution exist both technologically and in terms of regulation and approval of