Biological diversity has been continuously threatened by anthropogenic influences and is considered to be one of the most important subjects of protection. Despite long-standing political efforts, it has not yet been possible to stop the loss of biodiversity. Therefore, in addition to traditional conservation measures, politics has begun to increasingly focus on innovative economic approaches (valuation and capturing). Due to the complexity of biodiversity, its economic valuation faces considerable uncertainties. There still is a substantial need for further interdisciplinary research on the matter. In view of various undesired side effects, economic instruments require a strong regulatory framework as well as a careful balance of interests, particularly in developing countries characterized by legal uncertainties.