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Integrating Battery Aging in the Optimization for Bidirectional Charging of Electric Vehicles

Schwenk, Karl ORCID iD icon 1; Meisenbacher, Stefan 1; Briegel, Benjamin; Harr, Tim; Hagenmeyer, Veit 1; Mikut, Ralf ORCID iD icon 1
1 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Smart charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs) reduces operating cost, allows more sustainable battery usage, and promotes the rise of electric mobility. In addition, bidirectional charging and improved connectivity enable efficient power grid support. Today, however, uncoordinated charging, e.g., governed by users’ habits, is still the norm. Thus, the impact of upcoming smart charging applications is mostly unexplored. We aim to estimate the expenses inherent with smart charging, e.g., battery aging costs, and give suggestions for further research. Using typical onboard sensor data we concisely model and validate an EV battery. We then integrate the battery model into a realistic smart charging use case and compare it with measurements of real EV charging. The results show that i) the temperature dependence of battery aging calls for precise thermal models for charging power greater than 7 kW, ii) disregarding battery aging underestimates EVs’ operating cost by approx. 30%, and iii) the profitability of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) services based on bidirectional power flow, e.g., energy arbitrage , depends on battery aging costs and the electricity price spread.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000136277
Veröffentlicht am 29.11.2021
DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2021.3099206
Zitationen: 42
Web of Science
Zitationen: 29
Zitationen: 44
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Automation und angewandte Informatik (IAI)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2021
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1949-3053, 1949-3061
KITopen-ID: 1000136277
HGF-Programm 37.12.02 (POF IV, LK 01) Design,Operation & Digitalization of the Future Energy Grids
Erschienen in IEEE transactions on smart grid
Verlag Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Band 12
Heft 6
Seiten 5135-5145
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 26.07.2021
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
Web of Science
Globale Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung Ziel 7 – Bezahlbare und saubere Energie
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