Coherent steering of a quantum state, induced by a sequence of weak measurements, has become an active area of theoretical and experimental study. For a closed steered trajectory, the underlying phase factors involve both geometrical and dynamical terms. Furthermore, considering the reversal of the order of the measurement sequence, such a phase comprises a symmetric and an antisymmetric term. Superseding common wisdom, we show that the symmetric and the antisymmetric components do not correspond to the dynamical and geometrical parts, respectively. Addressing a broad class of measurement protocols, we further investigate the dependence of the induced phases on the measurement parameters (e.g., the measurement strength). We find transitions between different topologically distinct sectors, defined by integer-valued winding numbers, and show that the transitions are accompanied by diverging dephasing. We propose experimental protocols to observe these effects.