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Shedding some light on in-game formation changes in the German Bundesliga - Frequency, contextual factors, and differences between offensive and defensive formations

Forcher, Leon 1; Preine, Leon 1; Forcher, Leander 1; Jekauc, Darko 1; Woll, Alexander ORCID iD icon 1; Gross, Timo; Altmann, Stefan 1
1 Institut für Sport und Sportwissenschaft (IfSS), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


The tactical formation is considered an important factor in soccer, however, changes in tactical formation during matches (ingame) and the distinction between offensive and defensive formations has rarely been considered in previous studies analyzing match performance. Therefore, objectives of this studywere to investigate the following research questions: (i) How frequently do in-game formation changes occur? (ii) What contextual factors are associated with these changes? (iii) How often do defensive and offensive formations differ? The sample consisted of 81 matches (n=162 single team cases) of the 2020/2021 German Bundesliga season. For each case, the starting formations (i.e. defensive and offensive) and in-game formation changes were recorded by observation of video data. For each in-game formation change, the contextual variables “point in time,” “substitutions,” and “goals” were recorded. In-game formation changes were found in 29.6% of the cases studied. Most in-game formation changes were discovered for the second half (95.2%), when the own team substituted at least one player (76.2%), and when the opposing team was leading the match (69.0%). ... mehr

DOI: 10.1177/17479541221130054
Zitationen: 1
Web of Science
Zitationen: 1
Zitationen: 1
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Sport und Sportwissenschaft (IfSS)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2022
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1747-9541, 2048-397X
KITopen-ID: 1000151557
Erschienen in International journal of sports science & coaching
Verlag SAGE Publications
Band 18
Heft 6
Seiten 2051-2060
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 13.10.2022
Schlagwörter team sports, football, tactics, passing, running performance
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
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