Molecular chaperones encompass a group of unrelated proteins that facilitate the correct assembly and disassembly of other macromolecular structures of which they themselves do not remain a part. Chaperones associate with a large and diverse set of cofactors termed cochaperones that regulate their function and specificity. Chaperones and cochaperones regulate the activity of several classes of signaling molecules, including steroid receptors. Upon binding ligand, steroid receptors interact with discrete nucleotide sequences within the nucleus to control the expression of diverse physiological and developmental genes. Molecular chaperones and cochaperones are typically known to provide the correct conformation for ligand binding by the steroid receptors. While this contribution is widely accepted, recent studies have reported that they further modulate steroid receptor action outside ligand binding. Specifically, they are thought to contribute to receptor turnover, transport of the receptor to different subcellular localizations, recycling of the receptor on chromatin and stabilization of receptor DNA binding. In addition to these co ... mehrmbined effects with molecular chaperones, cochaperones have additional functions that are independent of molecular chaperones, some of which impact steroid receptor action. Two well-studied examples are the cochaperones p23 and Bag-1L, which have been identified as modulators of steroid receptor activity in the nucleus. Understanding details of their regulatory action will provide new therapeutic opportunities for controlling steroid receptor action independent of the widespread effects of molecular chaperones.