For a good ten years now, the term "synthetic biology" (Synbio for short) has been used to describe research projects, methods and procedures for a "transformation" of natural organisms that goes further than was previously possible with the help of genetic engineering. The creation of (completely) artificial "biological" systems (synbio in the narrow sense) is envisaged, although their practical use is still a long way off and is therefore unlikely to have much social and political relevance in the coming years. The situation is quite different with synbio in the broader sense - understood as the next stage of biotechnology and genetic engineering, which includes in particular the recently developed methods of so-called genome editing (including CRISPR/Cas). Due to the increasingly simple and faster possibilities of targeted molecular biological modification of known organisms, a large number of applications in microorganisms, plants and animals can be expected in the coming years. As expected, the debate on the responsible use and necessary regulation of genetic engineering gained momentum in autumn 2015. ... mehrThe TAB report provides a comprehensive account of the state of research, development and application, safety and governance issues of synbio, as well as a detailed portrait of actors and perspectives of do-it-yourself biology. It places the debates on the potentials and perspectives of synbio in larger science, research and innovation policy contexts and elaborates central questions for the future and fields of action - including in the area of biosafety research and with a view to expanding the groups of actors in the planning and implementation of research programmes and projects.